Automation testing with selenium
Automation testing with selenium

Types of Selenium Components – A Comprehensive Overview

5 minutes, 30 seconds Read

The most powerful tool in a quality analyst engineer’s toolbox is automation testing. Software or web application development came before testing, but those days are long gone. Automation testing has taken the place of human testers in order to maximize continuous testing efforts. One of the most popular tools for automated testing is Selenium. Since its debut in 2004, it has dominated the scene.

You can quickly review the Selenium components required for web application automation testing by reading this blog post.

What does selenium mean?

Selenium is the name of an open-source, cost-free automated testing toolkit. Automated testing of web applications across multiple platforms and browsers is its main objective. 

For web applications to operate without a hitch, testing is necessary. It assists in locating issues with websites. Every component of the website is tested to ensure that users don’t encounter any problems. The well-liked Selenium testing tool simplifies web application testing.

Applications for desktop and mobile platforms cannot be tested using Selenium. Software for testing desktop and mobile applications is available, including Appium, HP’s QPI, IBM’s RFI, and others.

Why Should You Test for Selenium?

One advantage of the Selenium testing suite over other web application testing tools is its accessibility. There are several reasons why selenium is superior to other elements. These include:

This tool is free and open-source, so there are no license fees.

Test scripts are typically written in one of the following programming languages: Java, Python, C#, PHP, Ruby, Perl, or .Net. Enrolling in an online Python course will enable you to start learning any of these programming languages.

Windows, Mac, or Linux are the operating systems on which the tests can be conducted.

Any of the following web browsers can be used to administer the tests: Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome, and Opera.

There are various parts available for selenium testing. 

Parts of the Suite Selenium

The Selenium software, which enables different code and application testing needs, is composed of four components. The selenium suite’s components are as follows:

The Selenium IDE

Selenium WebDriver
Selenium Grid
Selenium RC


  1. The Selenium IDE

IDE stands for Integrated Development Environment. The IDE testing tool runs in both Firefox and Chrome, though Firefox was originally the only browser that supported it. This suggests that testing can only be done with these two browsers.

Among the features of the Selenium IDE are:

It has a simple framework and is easy to use and install. For example, it’s easy to install in Firefox. Simply launch the browser and go to the “add-on page” of Firefox to incorporate the Selenium IDE plug-in. 

Test scripts don’t require programming language knowledge because test cases are created through browser interactions. This enables the testers to record and playback test cases for automated testing of web applications.

  1. Selenese is the scripting language used to write test cases. 

It supports several programming languages, including C#, Java, Ruby, and Python, from which users can export the recorded tests.

The properties of selenium RC are:

  1. It supports additional programming languages like Ruby, PHP, Python, Perl, C#, Java, and Javascript for automation testing.
  2. It works with almost all web browsers and operating systems.
  3. The other component is Selenium Grid, which supports the execution of multiple test cases in parallel. The components of selenium RC are as follows:
  • Selenium Server acts as a bridge between the code and the browser. It is responsible for interpreting and executing Selenium commands sent by the test scripts. 
  • It functions as an HTTP proxy server to start and stop browsers and to intercept and validate various types of web requests.
  • Client libraries are available to serve as an interface between the Selenium server and other programming languages.
  1. Selenium WebDriver

This component of the Selenium suite complements Selenium RC. Its development was intended to overcome the limitations of Selenium RC and enable direct browser-to-browser communication without requiring the server to be manually started in order to conduct testing procedures.

Features of Selenium WebDriver include:

  • It is an assortment of APIs (Automated Programming Interfaces) that improve web testing applications.
  • Every browser has a web driver that receives commands from Selenium and uses those commands to run the test scripts.
  • It supports multiple programming languages and works with a variety of browsers.
  • It does not support recording and replaying features from test scripts, in contrast to the Selenium IDE. 
  • It is capable of supporting dynamic web pages, which allow any element to change without requiring a page reload.
  •  It offers quick execution and can be combined with testing frameworks such as JUnit and TestNG.

It is composed of four basic components:

Language Bindings for Selenium and Client Libraries:
The language bindings also referred to as client libraries, support the following programming languages: Java, Ruby, Python, C#, and JavaScript. These libraries (jar files) contain the Selenium WebDriver classes and methods needed for automated test scripts. Rather than being a testing framework, Selenium client libraries are an application programming interface (API) for running Selenium commands from within the program. Automation Software Testing

JSON Wire Protocol:

JavaScript Object Notation, or JSON, is a data interchange format that is compatible with Python, C#, Ruby, and Java among other programming languages. It makes data exchange between the client and server on the web easier.

Browser drivers:

For each browser and Selenium to communicate securely, a driver is required. WebDriver responds to language binding requests by using the wire protocol to perform the required actions for each browser.

Real and True Headless Browsers: 

The headless browser lacks an interface, whereas a true browser does. For example, Chrome is a real browser, and HTMLUnit is a headless browser. automated testing for both browsers using Selenium WebDriver. 

  1. Selenium Grid

Selenium RC is used in tandem with a tool called Selenium Grid to run tests simultaneously on several computers and web browsers.

The ability to run tests in parallel across several computers and browsers is one of Selenium Grid’s features, which reduces the amount of time the testing suite takes to complete. 

It consists of two primary components:

Center: A hub is a central component in a Selenium grid that starts test cases. When it receives test requests, it distributes them among the nodes. A Selenium grid consists of a single hub.

Node: Nodes launch test cases across multiple computers, platforms, and web browsers after they are loaded into a hub.

To sum up

Automation testing with selenium is a synonymous concept. Web application automated testing has been accelerated with the help of Selenium components. Develop your knowledge of these elements and improve as a quality tester with the aid of this guide.


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